Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula

3 Learning Points About Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistulas:

Anatomy refresher of the cavernous sinus: Cranial nerves III, IV, V, and VI run through this space

Presenting Symptoms:
-Bruit (can sometimes be auscultated over the globe)
-Blurred Vision
-Headache
-Diplopia
-Ocular or orbital pain
-Proptosis
-Chemosis and conjunctival injection
-Cranial Nerve Palsies (notably III, IV, V1, V2, VI)

NEJM case presentations:
NEJM 2011
NEJM 2014 (trauma)
NEJM 2016 (trauma)